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BEFORE> Classify Your Butterflies
Adrenaline can be a double-edged sword. Sports psychologist Andrew Lane, Ph.D., has seen lab studies where “people feel so much pressure, they can’t do the simplest thing,” he says. If you tend to get tied up in knots, create distractions. Talk to your climbing partner about roping, or triple-check your equipment.

For others, though, stress is a stimulant. “Some 25 to 45 percent of athletes need to feel anxiety before competing,” says Jack Raglin, Ph.D., a sports psychologist at Indiana University. In that case, try focusing on a competitor you want to beat or a desired finish time. Remember: Basketball legend Bill Russell never felt truly ready without his pregame vomiting ritual.

DURING> Think Small
It’s never too late to change your outlook. If you’re tired midway through a race, don’t dwell on it. Instead, break down your goals into manageable chunks. “Concentrate on executing each movement of your body,” Lane says. “Relaxing your shoulders can help stop a cycle of vicious thoughts.”

Or focus directly on the pain. Sure, your quads are screaming halfway up a Colorado fourteener. But let that remind you of the aches you experienced while training, says sports psychologist David Coppel, Ph.D., and you’ll remember how well prepared you are. If you can’t keep your spirits high during a rough patch, then dissociate altogether. Top marathoners have been known to do complex math problems to keep their minds off the strain of a race.

AFTER> Take Charge
How did you feel before polishing off your best century ride? What can you remember about that awful 10K? If you can isolate the emotions that caused dramatic swings in your results, says Lane, “you’re that much further along to regulating them in the future.” Once you’ve determined what feelings help you excel, you can hone specific strategies. Some cyclists will use every ounce of energy to stay with the lead riders; others convince themselves to hold back and store up for a big push later in the race. Small rewards can inspire big improvements. Stancer, who’s considering another shot at the Pole, knows that food motivates her. Because there’s nothing like the promise of chocolate to get you over a long hard stretch of Arctic slab.

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